[25] used Fare et al. In general, results showed that quality of care was significantly positively related to technical efficiency but significantly negatively related to scale efficiency [15]. There was no additional external funding received for this study. Specifically, we distinguished among the following: We classified articles according to quantitative and qualitative methods used to conduct their analyses. Bed size 25 to 49: 160 66. %PDF-1.7 %���� The average length of stay of in-patients in hospitals is computed by first calculating the number of hospital days (or bed-days or in-patient days) from the date of admission to an in-patient institution as the date of discharge minus date of admission, and then dividing this … e0174533. Nine studies (39%) included all types of hospitals (rural and urban). Topics include the following: Have mergers contributed to enhance hospitals efficiency? For articles not included in Web of Science, we used the classification proposed by SJR (Scimago Journal & Country Rank), a portal that includes the journals and country scientific indicators developed from the information contained in the Scopus database (Elselvier B.V.). The authors concluded that in the context of health care reform, mergers might offer an expeditious means to restructure health services locally. Second, Finkler [49] reviewed and reconciled articles concerning the industry's long-term average cost curve, concluding that large hospitals (over 300 beds) might have a greater potential for scale economies. Five studies did not specify the hospital type included in the sample according to service offered (22%). The hospital twin, however, usually features a longer length of around 80 inches (203 cm). Most of these articles were published in the period 2001–2014. These rules are not hard and fast, but they serve as a starting point for the planning phase of the project. Two articles discussed Technical and Scale efficiencies’ effect on Quality of care. Data in the book includes: Five-year trends for community hospitals for 2011-2016 by total U.S., bed size, U.S. Census division, and state. Generally, public hospitals appeared more efficient than private hospitals. Regardless of size, EDs are most likely to achieve success with efficient operating systems and … One article [29] investigated the optimal size of hospitals, specifically, the relationship between efficiency and the size or scale of the hospitals, using DEA. Preyra and Pink [65] examined economies of scale in the years preceding restructuring of the hospital sector in the Province of Ontario. They can comfortably turn left and right in a mattress … In many countries, the hospital sector has been involved in a massive reform process marked by financial restructuring of existing hospitals, mergers and closures of several small hospitals. Fig 1 shows the flow diagram of the selection of articles included in the systematic search. There is also a hospital extra-extra-long, which is 36 inches (91 cm) in width and 84 inches (213 cm) long. Key targets for cancer, hospital care and A&E have been missed for over three years - with delays for hospital care and in A&E hitting their highest levels since both targets were introduced. The average length of stay in hospitals (ALOS) is often used as an indicator of efficiency. 1960 - 2019. Aletras et al. Most authors included urban and rural Hospitals to compare hospitals in terms of size and location. Most of the studies in this area were concentrated in the period 1990–2000. In both studies, district hospitals were operating inefficiently. 3. Three articles discussed the optimal size of hospitals. Five articles did not use any quantitative data analysis technique. The mean scale efficiency was 94.6%. The authors explored the cost structure of Swiss hospitals, focusing on differences due to teaching activities and differences related to ownership and subsidization types. Finally, we classified articles according to hospital ownership considered in the sample. Findings suggest that there are substantial economies of scale in small hospitals, but economies are exhausted in hospitals with over 10,000 discharges annually. Bed size 50 to 99: 264 67. The American Hospital Directory provides operational data, financial … [73], the authors integrated data, sending electronic and an ordinary mailing of letters to managers of hospitals. Only two articles collected data from direct contact with hospitals under analysis. The authors investigated the effect of managerial and organizational aspects on Italian hospital wards’ efficiency. Persons with overnight stays. Conversely, if you work at a small, rural hospital… These topics are those most frequently seen in studies published from 2001 to 2014. The average daily population at the hospital is approximately 670 patients. Two articles discussed potential Sources of inefficiency in the hospital sector. The optimum size is, therefore, that seen when all economies of scale have already been exploited but have not yet presented diseconomies. [73] estimated the efficiency effect of Greek National Health System reform, which required hospitals to operate as administrative and economic decentralized units under the control of Regional Health Systems. Authors found that hospitals’ cost inefficiency was often due to using too many input resources (number of personnel and beds–technical inefficiency), although the use of a wrong mix of resources (allocative inefficiency) also raised costs [18]. They concluded that economies of scale and scope depend upon the category of the hospital in addition to the number of beds and volume of output. It is completly dependant on factors such as location, city country or rural. We browsed those publications, removed duplicates, determined their relevance and then further downloaded those that were relevant. Authors concluded that hospitals could substantially reduce costs by adjusting their level and mix of input usage, thus reducing costs without sacrificing access. Moreover, Bilodeau et al. In general, authors showed that efficiency gains could result from downsizing large hospitals [23]. The number and wide range of publications justifies a review that allows, on the one hand, systematization of the literature and, on the other hand, identification of areas not treated, whose study will contribute to the evolution of science in terms that relate not only to knowledge but also to proactivity. First, Hefty [8] reviewed the progress made in the study of economies of scale in hospitals, finding that the long-term average cost curve appears to be U-shaped, with minimum average costs at the level of 200–300 beds. Allow approximately two exam rooms per doctor. LARGE fits most humans 99%, adjustable 2 ties, XLARGE is larger, bigger, more coverage, more room, long hair, adjustable 2 ties - IF IN DOUBT JUST ORDER ONE PRODUCT (SCROLL DOWN FOR SURGICAL CAPS MEASUREMENTS) 100% Cotton fabrics washed and ready to wear. For example, occupancy rate of beds is a significant variable explaining the level of hospital costs [19]. Conversely, the primary motives behind horizontal mergers were potential economies of scale and increasing market power. The average length of stay for an acute-care hospital admission is 4.8 days. The measure was well below one for both provincial general and specialty hospitals, with a mean of 357 and 192 beds, respectively, indicating large diseconomies of scale. Then, we present our results. One study [88] investigated the production technology of Portuguese hospitals and estimated their efficiency. Data are for the U.S. In this context, the opportunity to measure scale efficiency is crucial to address the question of optimal productive size and to manage a fair allocation of resources. Twin Hospital Mattress Size (38″ Inches Width x 74″ Inches Length) Typical hospital bed mattress sizes come in twin size dimensions. [75] analysing whether the configuration of Danish public hospitals was subject to economies of scale and scope prior to restructuring plans, found moderate-to-significant economies of scale and scope. Results showed that, on average, productivity of municipal hospitals in Angola increased by 4.5% over the period 2000–2002; the growth was due to improvements in efficiency rather than innovation. Chen X 2020. For severe patients with risk of organ(s) failure, patients are provided intensive care unit beds (aka ICU bed) or critical care beds (CCB). SOURCE: American Hospital Association (AHA). The Efficiency effect of health reforms was a topic discussed in two articles. One study was a theoretical study [26]. The largest number of mergers concerned the public hospital sector to contain health expenditures and to rationalize use of resources. In contrast, other authors [91, 92] who explored the efficiency of hospitals observed that larger hospitals displayed higher cost efficiency, higher allocative efficiency and higher technical efficiency than did their smaller counterparts. To overcome limits related to the choice and use of a single database, we integrated papers on the topic by using the Google search engine; the search returned 2.070.501 papers. The paper investigated the effect of market structure on the technical efficiency of hospitals, decomposed into pure technical and scale efficiency. Finally, 2 studies were theoretical/descriptive and empirical studies. Three studies were empirical analyses (25%) [83, 86, 87]. The data presented reveal that empirical studies were the most frequently used, which was the case in14 articles (54%). Two studies were theoretical/empirical, and one was a theoretical/descriptive. In addition, none of the previous studies considered the importance of payer mix in their models. This suggests efficiency benefits from organization of physician and insurance activities at the system level and potential efficiency gains from hospital consolidations. Finally, Masiye [16] estimated technical and scale efficiencies of a sample of hospitals in Zambia by collecting data from the official database of the Ministry of Health and direct visits to individual’s hospital. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174533.t017. Post-merger evidence suggested that mergers might reflect two general strategies: elimination of direct acute competitors or expansion of acute-care networks [89]. To improve the delivery of high-quality care, hospitals should instead focus on improving the processes that create better outcomes for patients. If you toil at a big urban hospital, your sphere of interest encompasses GME, training, research, and safety net care. All our cost estimations are based on a statistical average of hospital bill sizes for standard procedures from past admissions, barring any complications. The actual bill may differ significantly depending on the actual length of stay and needs for extra treatment, specialised services/ procedures, or non-standard consumables/ medications. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174533.t018. A hospital extra-long, however, is 80 inches (203 cm) long like the standard hospital twin but has a width of 36 inches (91 cm). The analysis of the regression results indicated that the national reimbursement system produced a significantly negative effect on healthcare efficiency. here. The top three occupations in the Hospitals Industry Group are Registered nurses, Nursing, psychiatric, & home health aides, Physicians & surgeons, Medical & health services managers, and Diagnostic related technologists & technicians. Association between hospital size and pharmacy department productivity. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174533.t015. Table 17 shows the frequency distribution of 23 articles published by 6 Operations Research and Management Science journals. As described previously, the high frequency of these types of studies is not surprising, given the nature of the topic. The global hospital gowns market size was valued at USD 2.7 billion in 2019 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.0% from 2020 to 2027. Generally, findings showed that economies of scale are present for merging hospitals and that they realize cost savings immediately following a merger. No, Is the Subject Area "Health care policy" applicable to this article? Table 11 shows the frequency distribution of articles published in Health Care Sciences and Services journals by primary data analysis technique. The author reviewed 317 published papers on frontier efficiency measurement published from 1983 to 2006. Technical and scale efficiency scores of hospitals were analysed in 4 articles. Bed size 100 to 199: 597 68. Concerning quantitative methods, DEA analysis was preferred (61%). Most of the articles (47%) were empirical studies. Concerning hospital location, most of these studies did not specify this aspect (52%). Results varied across countries. The most articles (9) were published in Health Care Management Science (HCMS), followed by European Journal of Operational Research (EJOR). Daidone and D’amico [38] analysed the effect of productive structure and level of specialization of hospital on technical efficiency using the Cobb-Douglas function and the Stochastic Frontier Model. One study investigated efficiency effect of health reforms. Hospital cost Efficiency, or analysis of potential cost gains arising from hospital mergers. Nevertheless, 10 studies used a mixed sample composed of public and private hospitals, and 3 studies used non-specified hospital types, according to ownership. Hospital size and technology. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174533.t009. Most articles (28%) were focussed on the question of hospital mergers and related cost saving. Table 19 shows the frequency distribution of articles published in Operations research & Management journals by research topic in a hospital setting. Concerning Source of inefficiency, some authors identify the wasting of resources as a source of inefficiency [16]. 136. Finally, concerning hospital ownership, the popular choice of setting for scale efficiency studies was Public Hospitals (50%). However, Posnett [82] discussed the existence of gains in terms of economies of scale in large hospitals, concluding that evidence from research did not support any general presumption that larger hospitals benefit from economies of scale or that service concentration leads to improved outcomes for patients. First, the temporal extension of analysis. Finally, Tsai and Jha [85] was a theoretical/descriptive study. The effect of hospital size and teaching status on patient experiences with hospital care: a multilevel analysis Med Care . Average Hospital Bill Size **MINISTRY OF HEALTH – HOSPITALS’ BILL SIZES INFORMATION ** Bill sizes include doctors’ professional fees. Many articles discussed the effect of health reforms on a hospital’s efficiency. The author reveals that 11 of 23 units were inefficient. We chose the SSCI database (Social Science Citation Index), incorporated in the Web of Science Internet library source. The main objective of this empirical study was to verify the existence of scale economies in hospital samples using parametric or non-parametric methods such as DEA, SFA, or through a cost function [31, 32]. This systematic search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement [7] (S1 Table). Technical and scale efficiencies of a sample of Italian hospitals were comparatively examined before and after a reform to control health expenditures [37]. Another factor used as a strategy to increase efficiency levels and reduce hospitals costs was the diversification of the output-mix offered [94]. Generally, also in this context, authors observed that mergers increased a hospital's efficiency level [96, 97, 98, 99]. Decades of research were classified as follows: Concerning the research method applied, it is possible in our review to identify the following approaches: Concerning research setting, we classified hospitals according to services offered (Hospital types), location (Urban and Rural Hospitals), and ownership (Public, Private and Church Hospitals). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174533.t002. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The question concerning scale efficiency is whether larger hospitals are more or less efficient than smaller ones. Concerning mixed methods, most of the articles were descriptive/empirical studies (10); six articles were theoretical/descriptive studies and four articles were theoretical/descriptive and empirical studies. Results of the empirical studies reviewed in this article showed that the long-term average cost curve appears to be U-shaped, with costs rising slowly as the scale of production goes beyond the optimal point and with the point of minimum average cost most likely occurring between the 200-bed and 300-bed levels. The market is expected to witness significant growth on account of rapid increase in the adoption of these systems for efficient management of hospital operations. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. This translates to about $96,000 per year but it may vary from one hospital to another. 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